Hall also explains how these early perceptions of race, combined with economic and sexual pressures, formed a modern cultural identity for England's white, male citizens. Honigmann, E. The Texts of " Othello " and Shakespearean Revision. London and New York: Routledge, Honigmann takes a historical and textual approach to Othello , exploring the impact of the original publisher, Thomas Walkley, and the scribe for the Folio version, Ralph Crane.
This book details the contribution of these two men in the transformation of Shakespeare's original manuscript into the play that is studied and performed today. By extension, Honigmann calls into question the process of development for the other plays of Shakespeare. Kaul, Mythili, ed. Othello: New Essays by Black Writers. Authors use a diverse selection of approaches to address the issue of racism in Othello. The guiding question behind this collection is whether Othello is a play about racism, or simply a racist play.
Kaul provides an illuminating preface and an overview of stage representations of the play from through the late nineties. Kolin's collection of critical essays covers a wide range of approaches and perspectives. The book incorporates issues in current Shakespearean criticism from leaders in the field, examining new stagings of the play, semiotics, Marxism, and broader cultural issues. Soon after, on 8 December , Thomas Killigrew 's new King's Company acted the play at their Vere Street theatre, with Margaret Hughes as Desdemona — probably the first time a professional actress appeared on a public stage in England.
It may be one index of the play's power that Othello was one of the very few Shakespearean plays that was never adapted and changed during the Restoration and the eighteenth century. This production was the first ever in America to feature a black actor playing Othello with an otherwise all-white cast there had been all-black productions of the play before.
It ran for performances, almost twice as long as any other Shakespearean play ever produced on Broadway. Although it was never filmed, it was the first lengthy performance of a Shakespeare play released on records, first on a multi-record 78 RPM set and then on a 3-LP one. The critics had mixed reactions to the "flashy" production which included mid-western accents and rock-and roll drumbeats but gave Robeson primarily good reviews. Darlington of The Daily Telegraph ranked Robeson's Othello as the best he had ever seen  while the Daily Express , which had for years before published consistently scathing articles about Robeson for his leftist views, praised his "strong and stately" performance though in turn suggested it was a "triumph of presence not acting".
Actors have alternated the roles of Iago and Othello in productions to stir audience interest since the nineteenth century. The stunt renewed interest in Booth's tour. The American actor William Marshall performed the title role in at least six productions. From his first entry, slender and magnificently tall, framed in a high Byzantine arch, clad in white samite, mystic, wonderful, a figure of Arabian romance and grace, to his last plunging of the knife into his stomach, Mr Marshall rode without faltering the play's enormous rhetoric, and at the end the house rose to him.
The Broadway staging starred James Earl Jones as Othello and Christopher Plummer as Iago, who became the only actor to receive a Tony Award nomination for a performance in the play. When Laurence Olivier gave his acclaimed performance of Othello at the Royal National Theatre in , he had developed a case of stage fright that was so profound that when he was alone onstage, Frank Finlay who was playing Iago would have to stand offstage where Olivier could see him to settle his nerves.
The film version still holds the record for the most Oscar nominations for acting ever given to a Shakespeare film — Olivier, Finlay, Maggie Smith as Desdemona and Joyce Redman as Emilia, Iago's wife were all nominated for Academy Awards. Olivier was among the last white actors to be greatly acclaimed as Othello, although the role continued to be played by such performers as Donald Sinden at the Royal Shakespeare Company in —, Paul Scofield at the Royal National Theatre in , Anthony Hopkins in the BBC Television Shakespeare production , and Michael Gambon in a stage production at Scarborough directed by Alan Ayckbourn in Gambon had been in Olivier's earlier production.
In an interview Gambon commented "I wasn't even the second gentleman in that. I didn't have any lines at all. I was at the back like that, standing for an hour. No one knew. All the line used to listen to The Archers. Olivier sent me a telegram on the first night. He said, "Copy me. He used to paint the big negro lips on.
Othello new essays by black writers
You couldn't do it today, you'd get shot. He had the complete negro face. And the hips. I did all that.
I copied him exactly. Except I had a pony tail. I played him as an Arab. I stuck a pony tail on with a bell on the end of it.
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I thought that would be nice. Every time I moved my hair went wild. Stewart had wanted to play the title role since the age of 14, so he and director Jude Kelly inverted the play so Othello became a comment on a white man entering a black society. Companies have also chosen to share the role between several actors during a performance. Canadian playwright Ann-Marie MacDonald 's award-winning play Goodnight Desdemona Good Morning Juliet is a revision of Othello and Romeo and Juliet in which an academic deciphers a cryptic manuscript she believes to be the original source for the tragedies, and is transported into the plays themselves.
Othello as a literary character has appeared in many representations within popular culture over several centuries. There also have been over a dozen film adaptations of Othello. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about Shakespeare's play.
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For the board game, see Reversi. For the title character in Shakespeare's play, see Othello character. For other uses, see Othello disambiguation. Advertisement for the Columbia Masterworks Records release of Othello The production of Othello , starring Paul Robeson and Uta Hagen , holds the record for the most performances of any Shakespeare play ever produced on Broadway. Main article: Othello in popular culture. Retrieved 1 December Stephen's School.
Bantam Books, Adventures in Creativity: Multimedia Magazine. Archived from the original on 20 August Retrieved 17 October Retrieved 18 August Wordsworth Editions. Retrieved from Google Books on 5 November Mayor of London , Muslims in London , pp.
Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. JSTOR Renaissance Quarterly. University of Chicago Press. In Clayton, Tom; et al. Shakespeare and the Mediterranean. University of Delaware Press. Othello , rev. Honigmann ed , Othello , Arden Shakespeare, Appendix 1, pp. Othello Yale Shakespeare. Bloom, Harold.
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Yale University Press. Basingstoke, England: Macmillan. The Globe Guide to Shakespeare. Profile Books.
Emily C. Honigmann , ed. London: Thomas Nelson, , p.
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Othello Oxford University Press , , pp. Walters Art Museum. Curtain up, DC.
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